Country Information

 

 

   

General

WTO commitments

Government

Investing and doing business in China

Economic indicators

Accessing and entering China

Reforms and national development

Province; autonomous region; city snapshots

 

General
 

Country name

People's Republic of China (PRC)

Capital city

Beijing (pop. 21.7 million)

Population

1.34 billion; 0.5% growth rate
Distribution by:
 rural/urban   age    sex

Land area

9,596,960 sq km (3rd largest country in the world)
Population density is 135.5 km2

People

Han Chinese (93%) and 55 ethnic groups

Ethnic groups

Achang, Bai, Blang, Bonan, Dai, Daur, Deang, Dong, Bouyei,  Dongxiang, Drung, Ewenki, Gaoshan, Gelo, Hani, Hezhen, Hui, Jing, Jingpo, Jino,  Kazak, Kirgiz, Korean, Lahu, Lhoba, Li, Lisu, Manchu, Maonan, Miao, Moinba, Mongolian, Mulam, Naxi, Nu, Oroqen, Ozbek, Pumi, Qiang, Russian, Salar, She, Shui,Tatar, Tajik, Tibetan, Tu, Tujia, Uygur, Va, Xibe, Yao, Yi, Yugur, Zhuang.             

 

Official language

Mandarin (Pŭtōnghuà)

Mandarin is spoken by possibly more people (over 1 billion) than any other language. It is the main language of government, the media and education in China.

Key Dialects

Cantonese (Yuè)
Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, Hong Kong, Macau and Hainan island.

Fujianese (Mĭn Nán)
Southern Fujian province, Guangdong province, southern Hainan Island, southern Zhejiang and Jiangxi provinces, and Taiwan.


Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces. Major dialects include Shanghainese and Suzhou.

 

Religions

Officially atheist; Confucianism; Buddhism; Taoism; Islam; Christianity.

National insignia

Flag   Coat of arms 

National anthem

"The March of the Volunteers", written in 1935, with lyrics by the poet Tian Han and music by the composer Nie Er, honoring those who went to the front to fight the Japanese invaders in northeast China in the 1930s. Decided upon as the provisional national anthem of the new China on September 27, 1949, at the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the song was officially adopted as the national anthem of the PRC on December 4, 1982, by the National People’s Congress.
¯Listen to the anthem here

Currency

Renminbi (RMB), also known as the Yuan (until 21 July 05 was pegged to US dollar; now valued against a basket of currencies known to include the US dollar, Euro, Japanese Yen, South Korean Won, UK Pound, Thai Baht and Russian Rouble).
Notes: yuan in 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1 denominations; jiao in 5, 2 and 1 denominations.
Coins: 1 yuan, 5 jiao and 1 jiao denominations.

Weights and measures

Metric

 

Metric

Chinese

Imperial

Area

1 hectare (ha)

15 MU

2.47 acres

Length

1 kilometre (km)

2 LI

0.62 mile

 

1 metre (m)

3 CHI

3.281 feet

Volume

1 liter (L)

1 SHENG

0.22 gallon

Weight

1 kilogram (kg)

2 JIN

2.205 pounds

 

Electrical supply

220 volts; 50 Hz. Note that the type of electrical outlet may vary by province. Thus, the type of plugs required will depend on the location in China. Type A   Type I   Type G

Major holidays

National Day (Oct. 1); the Spring Festival (the Chinese lunar New Year's Day; see lunar calendar below), International Labour Day (May 1). A week's vacation is associated with each of the three major holidays (known as "golden weeks"). Major holidays are occasions for family reunions and travelling.

Other holidays

New Year's Day (Jan. 1); Youth Day (May 4); CPC Founding Day (July 1); Army Day (August 1); Lantern Festival (15th day of 1st lunar month); Tomb Sweeping Day (5th Solar Term - early April); Dragon Boat Festival (5th day of 5th lunar month); Double Seven Festival (7th day of 7th lunar month); Spirit Festival (15th day of 7th lunar month); Mid-Autumn Festival (15th day of 8th lunar month); Double Ninth Festival (9th day of 9th lunar month).

Lunar calendar

2005 to 2016

Time zones

None


History

 

Dynastic Rule in China

Xia dynasty

 

2070 - 1600 B.C.

Shang Dynasty

 

1600 - 1046 B.C.

Zhou Dynasty

Western Zhou

1046 - 771 B.C.

Eastern Zhou

770 - 256 B.C.

Spring and autumn period

770 - 476 B.C.

Warring states period

475 - 221 B.C.

Qin Dynasty

 

221 - 206 B.C.

Han Dynasty

Western Han

206 B.C. - 25 A.D.

Eastern Han

25 - 220

Three Kingdoms

Wei

220 - 265

Shu Han

221 - 263

Wu

222 - 280

Western Jin Dynasty

 

265 - 317

Eastern Jin Dynasty

 

317 -420

Southern Dynasties

Song

420 - 479

 

Qi

479 - 502

 

Liang

502 - 557

 

Chen

557 - 589

Northern Dynasties

Northern Wei

386 - 534

 

Eastern Wei

534 -550

 

Northern Qi

550 - 577

 

Western Wei

535 - 556

 

Northern Zhou

557 - 581

Sui Dynasty

 

581 - 618

Tang Dynasty

 

618 -  907

Five Dynasties

Later Liang

907 - 923

Later Tang

923 - 936

Later Jin

936 - 947

Later Han

947 - 950

Later Zhou

951 - 960

Song Dynasty

Northern Song

960 - 1127

Southern Song

1127 - 1279

Liao

 

907 - 1125

Jin

 

1115 - 1234

Yuan Dynasty

 

1206 - 1368

Ming Dynasty

 

1368 - 1644

Qing Dynasty

 

1616 - 1911

Republic of China

 

1912 - 1949

People’s Republic of China

 

Founded on Oct 1, 1949

 


Communications

 

Telephones - landline

224 million

Telephones - mobile

1.28 billion

IDD country code

86;

Dialling and postal codes

Radio broadcast stations

AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 )

Television broadcast stations

3,240:  China Central Television (209); provincial TV stations (31); local city stations (about 3,000)

Internet code

.cn

Internet hosts

160,421

Internet users

721 million


Transportation

 

Railways 

Standard gauge: 68,000 km 1.435 metre gauge
High Speed: 20,000 km
Narrow gauge: 3,600 km 1.000 metre and 0.750 metre gauge local industrial lines
Total: 70,058 km

Highways

Paved: 314,204 km (with at least 16,314 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 1,088,494 km
Total: 1,402,698 km

Ports and harbours

Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang.